By Brian Ferguson Friday, 22nd January 2021, 3:50 pm … I conduct a walking tour of the statues that tries to use the statues to demonstrate that it’s not just a question of individual slave traders, but that slavery and abolition are … Ralph Wardlaw who became one of the leading slavery emancipationists in Britain after 1833. To listen to audio for each stop on the tour, please click here . This tour is presented as part of a series of three tours, the Warm Welcome Walks 2020, organised by the UNESCO Chair in Refugee Integration through Languages and the Arts at the University of Glasgow, Scotland. He also served as Lord Provost, Lord Dean of Guild and was an M.P. Video, 00:01:47 Glasgow's slave trade past is all around us After Hastie’s firm ‘Robert and William Hastie’ failed, like so many others in the 1770s, the land was sold to John Craig, a wright. Josiah Henson (1789-1883), a slave who had escaped to Canada in 1830 and was the inspiration for the fictitious ‘Uncle Tom’. In 1836 he supported the petition of 30,000 residents of the city to end the apprenticeship scheme in the West Indies that had continued a form of slavery after its formal abolition by Parliament in 1834. His successor, Adam Smith (1723-90), attacked slavery on economic and moral grounds as the ‘vilest of all states’. Buchanan Street, arguably the most potent symbol of modern Glasgow’s image as a cosmopolitan city, is named after the Tobacco Lord, Andrew Buchanan (1725-1783). Glassford’s main business was the Virginia trade in tobacco, an industry built on slave labour and this was where he made and lost most of his fortune. The street was also the location of the later Town Hall and the Tontine rooms, which in the 1780s became the social and commercial headquarters of Glasgow, at a time when this area was fashionable and affluent. ‘The Tontine Society’ of Glasgow was formed in 1782. Andrew Buchanan (1690- 1759) and his two younger brothers had, by 1730, established a firm, Andrew Buchanan, Bros & Co, which was the largest tobacco importer in Glasgow. He later sold some of the land around his property. We are not men standing in kilts rattling off dates of battles. In 1778 the courts took the monumental step of banning slavery in Scotland prompted by Joseph Knight – a household servant in Scotland who ran away and when caught attempted to prove his freedom. Glasgow’s Glassford Street (after the Glassford family) and Virginia Street (after the American Colony where many plantations were) are a legacy of this dark chapter. Close to here is the ‘Bridgegate’ or ‘Briggait’ and the Merchants’ Steeple. The Oswalds came from Caithness and assumed a prominent position in Glasgow society based on trade in tobacco, sugar and wine. In the 19th century, Glasgow’s connection to slavery was obscured. Local academic Stephen Mullen has been uncovering some of these darker aspects by hosting a series of Sunday walking tours around Glasgow during October for Black History Month. This tour of Glasgow’s City Centre and Merchant City tells a story of the built heritage, the tobacco merchants’ legacy and the Slave Trade and its abolition. Glasgow’s – and Scotland’s – associations with the slave trade began in haste following the 1707 Act of Union, which saw Scotland and England unite to … The memorial – a … Most Scottish slavers were based in Jamaica; about a third of the country’s white population were Scottish, and to this day there are several Scottish place names in Jamaica: Glasgow, Dundee, Aberdeen, and two Culloden’s! The tour took us to the original sight of The Old College in Glasgow, which was singled out for praise by the leaders of the abolitionist movement for its campaigning role. After a series of lecture tours in the USA, Douglass spent two years on a circuit of churches, chapels and lectures throughout Great Britain and Ireland between 1846 and 1848. Cunninghame purchased three plots in what is now Queen Street but was then Cow Loan, a country track. a third major phase of its history, as the Gallery of Modern Art. Stay up to date and join our mailing list Join Now >, Portland House, 17 Renfield Street, Glasgow, G2 5AH. Various prominent Glasgow merchants were amongst the original subscribers to what was, in effect, the forerunner of the later Royal Exchange. It opened in 1753 with the financial help of Glassford and Archibald Ingram (c.1699-1770), another Tobacco Lord. We are also indebted to Dr Stephen Mullen’s book It Wisnae Us: The Truth About Glasgow and Slavery which guided us on our tour of Glasgow’s less-than-savoury past. The Merchants House is an impressive monument to Glasgow’s global trading. With the continued spread of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in the United States, the Center for the Study of Slavery and Justice — in alignment with University policy — will suspend all programs and tours effective Wednesday, March 11th. It was opened in 1833, the idea of James Ewing, a prominent West Indian merchant. Sugar boiling was one of the mainstays of Glasgow’s fast-growing economy in the second half of the seventeenth century. This history includes the enslavement of African-Americans, racial lynchings, segregation, and racial bias. Instead, we pride ourselves on letting you discover Scotland's cities and towns through a local's eyes. Another Tobacco Lord, he was involved in the West Indian sugar trade, banking, printing and the iron industry. After the publication of his 1845 autobiography, ‘Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave’, he lived in Edinburgh in 1846-7 while he made a speaking tour … In 1807, the slave trade in British Colonies became illegal and British ships were no longer allowed to carry slaves. On the walls are carvings of Neptune, and ornate compass drawings, with the Glasgow coat of arms – all helping reinforce the historic role of Glasgow as the second city of the world’s most powerful Empire. These rooms, which included a hotel, coffee room and assembly hall, became the social and commercial headquarters of Glasgow at a time when this area was fashionable and affluent. Always recruiting volunteers please get in touch. Miller Street was named after John Miller of Westerton, a land speculator who first laid out the street in plots in the 1750s. The venue helps illustrate Glasgow’s truly international contribution to universal emancipation. A native of Paisley, Glassford’s rise in Glasgow society was spectacular, even though he probably did not begin trading in tobacco until the 1730s. ALL 12 of the statues of scientists, soldiers, writers, politicians and royals in George Square in Glasgow have a variety of connections to slavery and abolition. From there, cargoes would go to English and European markets, particularly France. The Legacy Museum – Virtual Tour The Legacy Museum: From Enslavement to Mass Incarceration displays the history of slavery and racism in America. Jamaica Street rapidly became one of Glasgow’s busiest streets. St Andrews by the Green or the Whistling Kirk, was built at a cost of £1250 and is similar in style to Glasgow’s Georgian villas. In the Trongate Glasgow’s merchants waited on their tobacco ships to return which explains the Merchants House motto, engraved in stone, Toties redeuntes eodem (`So often returning to the same place`). Ms Njenga said: "Glasgow used to be 13 streets but because of the wealth of the slave traders it expanded. Recent years have seen wider acknowledgement of Glasgow’s role as a former second city of the empire, through books like Stephen Mullen’s It Wisnae Us: The Truth About Glasgow And Slavery and several exhibitions and walking tours exploring how the area benefitted from the slave trade. The legacy of slavery in the UK should be studied, starting with universities acknowledging their own history Tue 18 Sep 2018 13.49 EDT Last modified on Tue 18 Sep 2018 13.50 EDT Share on Facebook During his tour of Scotland in 1846 Frederick Douglass, the formerly enslaved anti-slavery campaigner, demanded that the Free Church 'send back the money'. It was not an area for Glasgow citizens of a lower social scale. There are also memorials to Sir James Stirling of Keir (1740-1805), who owned plantations and slaves in Jamaica, and to Andrew Cochrane (1692-1777), a Virginia Don, who owned the King Street Sugarhouse and was six times Lord Provost of the city. The University of Glasgow is a registered Scottish charity: Registration Number SC004401. Ewing’s father, also James Ewing, owned the largest sugar plantation in Jamaica. The Glasgow Emancipation Society started the Uncle Tom Offering, which was introduced to make up royalties Beecher Stowe could not receive in Britain. for Glasgow. Glasgow, Scotland – When abolitionist Frederick Douglass arrived in Scotland on a speaking tour in 1846 from the United States, 13 years had … Earlier this year, Glasgow Life appointed its first curator to look specifically at the legacies of slavery and the British Empire. Blog by Jack Tannock, media volunteer at Scottish Refugee Council. Many streets we know well, such as Ingram and Buchanan, bear the name of slavers. Andrew Buchanan purchased the land now known as Buchanan Street in 1760, and lived there for a number of years. Slavery shaped modern Britain and we live with the memory of slavery today. C. Pennington in 1849-51. School of Humanities | Sgoil nan Daonnachdan. The Free Church was founded in 1843 and was deprived of public money. The only one of its kind to survive, the house, a small scale interpretation of the mansions designed by Andrea Palladio in Italy’s Veneto region, illustrates the eighteenth century living conditions of ‘average’ merchants – sometimes called Tobacco Lairds in contrast with the grander Palladian homes of the much wealthier Tobacco Lords. There’s much to be proud of, but there are some darker aspects to this city’s past, including the shameful part it played in the slave trade. The first tenement in the area was built in 1774. Beecher Stowe (1811-96) was an American abolitionist and novelist, whose novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, sold over 300,000 copies in the USA in the first year after it was published in 1852. The common entrance to a subsequent tenemental development formed part of the modern entry to Buchanan Street at Argyle Street. Road names dedicated to slave-trade profiteers could be changed as the Scottish city studies its past. After the publication of his 1845 autobiography, ‘Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave’, he lived in Edinburgh in 1846-7 while he made a speaking tour of Britain. Ironically, the Oswalds’ nephew, James, was an M.P who supported a petition moving for the abolition of the apprenticeship scheme in 1836. The University of Glasgow has published a comprehensive report into the institution’s historical links with racial slavery. It could be assumed that tobacco merchants contributed to this cost; the Spanish mahogany interior was imported by these merchants. Edinburgh, like Glasgow, Dublin, Bristol, and Clifton, were strong supporters of Garrison's proposal, whilst other groups favoured a managed move away from slavery. In Glasgow’s ‘golden age of tobacco’, it was central to the development of the city’s commerce across the world. Contact us The stately homes, street names, buildings, and statues across the country tie us to this terrible past. The Buchanans had considerable wealth and social status in 18th century Glasgow, and Andrew was a leading partner in both‘Buchanan, Hastie and Co.’ and ‘Andrew Buchanan and Co.’ for a time two of the most powerful Virginia trading firms, although they folded in 1777 due to financial difficulties. This was the old Merchants House which was used as a look-out for merchants awaiting the arrival of their cargoes from Virginia and the West Indies. Many merchants were buried there. There is a stained-glass memorial to Alexander Spiers of Elderslie (1714-82), one of the original Tobacco Lords and sometimes called ‘the mercantile god of Glasgow’. Wardlaw was central to a campaign that became truly international in its scope. The Square’s position however, as the mercantile headquarters of Glasgow was short-lived, as the leading merchants gradually moved west in the early nineteenth century. Great Britain’s economic development was built on trade with her colonies and this is dramatically portrayed in the Chambers’ architecture. This week Scottish Refugee Council is hosting its first-ever event at which refugees and asylum…. By contrast Glasgow’s position as a leading abolitionist city is symbolised by the statue of James Oswald (1785-1853) in George Square. A square of three-storey townhouses, described as ‘perfect examples of elegance and splendour’, was laid out around the Church in 1787 ‘for the use and resort of merchants and others’. Maiyah Gamble-Rivers created the Slavery & Legacy tour for the Center for the Study of Slavery & Justice at Brown University that includes a stop at the Slavery … Glasgow, Scotland – When abolitionist Frederick Douglass arrived in Scotland on a speaking tour in 1846 from the United States, 13 years had passed since Britain enacted the Slavery Abolition Act. They included John Glassford (1715-83) and George Bogle of Daldowie (1700-84). The Oswald family, who have links to both the slave trade and the abolition movement, have a burial plot within the Cathedral. In time the Necropolis became the most fashionable place to be buried in the burgeoning Victorian city. Ultimately Scotland has much to be proud of from this period as well as much that is shameful, but we must do more to remember the part we played in the slave trade. British ships made over 11,000 journeys that we know of, forcibly transporting almost three million men, women, and children to slavery. Glasgow University, originally situated in the heart of the city on High Street, played an active part in campaigning against slavery. The older Ramshorn cemetery, now partly covered by Ingram Street, was the ‘fashionable’ – and expensive – place to be buried in Glasgow in the eighteenth century. The building was modelled on St Martin-In-The-Fields in London. To view the Slavery & Legacy Walking Tour website, please click here. The court ruling was unexpected but hugely symbolic. The Glasgow Anti-Slavery Society was formed in 1822 and the city was known as one of the staunchest abolitionist cities in Britain. Virginia Street and ‘The Virginia Mansion’, which was situated on the site of the modern-day Corinthian in Ingram Street, were a testament to the wealth and influence of successive generations of the same Glasgow merchant family. It also helped bankrupt the brothers, who are located under the pavement in Ingram Street, the place marked by the initials RF & AF. However, complete abolition of slavery did not come until 1833. 25/07/2017. A side which is deeply rooted in its past, buried under years of commercial development and regeneration – Glasgow’s role in the slave trade. Francis Hutcheson (1694-1746) studied there and his lectures, after he was appointed Professor of Moral Philosophy in 1729, provided a moral critique of slavery, which inspired abolitionists on a global scale. The Broomielaw was used as a dock to land tobacco and sugar from the larger ports at Greenock and Port Glasgow and the new street became an important thoroughfare on the way to many Glasgow warehouses. Great enlightenment thinkers such Francis Hutchison and Adam Smith challenged slavery and many others fought for abolition. Slavery Act Disclosure ... Johnston & Company (Laphroaig) Ltd, Springburn Bond, Carlisle St, Glasgow G21 1EQ, registered in the United Kingdom, registration number SC028072. Its importance in the road to emancipation is demonstrated by the career of James McCune Smith (1813-65), who became the first African American to graduate MD anywhere and was also the first to practise medicine in the USA. Even though slavery had been judged illegal in Britain, the slave trade system was … The tour tries to use the statues to demonstrate that it’s not just a question of individual slave-traders, but that slavery and abolition are woven through George Square’s public memory of commerce, politics, science, militarism, industrialisation, academia and literature. “We should be deeply uncomfortable about what happened, and about Glasgow’s role was. In 1996 the building entered Here, Miles picks out two pieces from the Glasgow collection with particular relevance to the legacy of the slave trade. After moving to London in 1746, Richard branched out into horses, sugar and slaves, including four plantations in the Caribbean, over 30,000 acres in East Florida, and Bance Island in Sierra Leone, which he used as a base for transporting Africans into slavery in South Carolina. After escaping slavery in 1838 by going to New York, he became a brilliant orator and tireless freedom fighter alongside members of his family. Cunninghame had the motto emergo – to emerge – etched on the mansion, a boast of his own rapid rise in society. Glasgow's slavery links revealed by interactive walking tour, September 2020, News, Architecture and the built environment is an integral part of our society and we hope to provide a useful platform for debate, information and inspiration. Ralph Wardlaw (1779-1853), one of the founders of the Glasgow Anti-Slavery Society in 1823. The Slavery, Abolition and the University of Glasgow report was co-authored by Prof Simon Newman and Dr Stephen Mullen, and examined the … Frankie Boyle finds out more. Theatrical walking tour to explore the legacy of Glasgow’s radical women. A variety of prominent merchants were buried there, including two Tobacco Lords, John Glassford (1715-83) and Andrew Buchanan (1690-1759), one of the founders of The Ship Bank, Glasgow’s first bank. Over half a million people signed the welcoming address to her lecture tour of Great Britain. For more information on the other walks, please visit https://www.gla.ac.uk/research/az/unesco/events/. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Get your Love Glasgow Hate Racism tshirts and tote bags, and raise money for Scottish Refugee Council and United Glasgow FC! The tour took us to the original sight of The Old College in Glasgow, which was singled out for praise by the leaders of the abolitionist movement for its campaigning role. Frederick Douglass (1818-95) was an African American who, after escaping from slavery in Maryland in 1838, became a leading campaigner in the Foreign and American Anti-Slavery Society. Both, of course, were built entirely on slave labour. Sign of the times: Glasgow’s slavery profits in the spotlight. The Cunninghame Mansion, now at the core of the Gallery of Modern Art, in Royal Exchange Square, was built for William Cunninghame of Lainshaw (d.1789), one of Glasgow’s most prominent eighteenth century merchants. It was behind the deepening of the River Clyde to allow large shipping vessels to dock and it helped recruit troops in the American War of Independence to protect the tobacco trade. Black people are central to the story of Britain's cities because their work helped fund buildings, institutions, culture and history here. St David’s Church, at no. The Oswald family had extensive links with the tobacco and sugar trades, both built on slave labour. By Dr Michael Morris. The Trongate, named after the old public weigh beam or ‘tron’ at its east end, was one of the original eight streets in Glasgow before the city’s eighteenth century expansion. No.42 was subsequently occupied by other prominent merchants such as Robert Findlay of Easterhill (1748-1802), a tobacco importer who lived there from 1780 until 1802. In the 19th century, Glasgow’s connection to slavery was obscured. This tour of Glasgow’s City Centre and Merchant City tells a story of the built heritage, the tobacco merchants’ legacy and the Slave Trade and its abolition. An organisation of Glasgow merchants was established in the seventeenth century. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. His granite sarcophagus in the Necropolis was sculpted by John Mossman, the pre- eminent Glasgow sculptor of the age. GLASGOW.- Glasgow Life, the charity that manages the city’s museums and collections, has appointed Miles Greenwood as its first Curator focussing on the legacies of slavery and empire, to continue to tell the story of the impact the transatlantic trade in enslaved Africans and the British Empire has had on Glasgow. Sadly these families would have made their fortunes from plantation profits and the slave trade. In 1829, the mansion, much altered by the architect David Hamilton (1768-1843), sometimes known as the ‘father of Glasgow’s architecture’, took on a new lease of life as the Royal Exchange. Created by … Alexander was the chapel’s first patron. I’m Dr. Peggy Brunache, historian and archaeologist of Atlantic slavery. 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